A universal testing machine is popularly known by many other connotations such as a universal tester, material test frame or a material testing machine. It is an equipment that is most commonly used for testing the tensile and compressive strength of elements put into it. The word “Universal” is used in its name to denote that the machine could perform many standardized tensile tests and compression tests on various materials and various structures that are available all around the world. 

There are various designs in which Universal Testing Machines are available for usage. The most common components of that are provided by all Universal testing machine manufacturers include:

  • Load Frame: It usually consists of two strong supports for the frame of the machine.
  • Load cell: It is composed of any means that would measure the amount of load required in the machine.
  • Crosshead: The crosshead is used to move the machine in an upward or downward direction.
  • Output device: This records the output of the tests that are performed on various elements. 
  • Means to measure extension or change on the form: It is used to measure the change in the shape, form, and structure of the metal when force is exerted upon it.
  • Conditioning: It involves devices that could be used to create favorable atmospheric conditions to carry out the test like maintaining proper pressure, temperature, humidity, etc.
  • Other components, like text fixtures, product holding jaws, sample making equipment, etc. 

Universal testing machines are used to carry out various tests on the elements to check their quality and suitability for industrial usage. These tests are as follows:

  1. Tensile test: This test helps in understanding the tensile strength of the product. it helps in determining the amount of force or pressure that the material could undertake without breaking into pieces. 
  2. Compression test: Compression tests help the manufactures in understanding the extension power of the material. It helps in determining to what extent a material or element could be compressed so that it does not break. 
  3. Adhesion test: Adhesion test helps in determining the ionic strength of the elements that are being tested. It helps in determining what type of bonds the element could form with other materials to which it is exposed. This helps in pairing the most compatible elements with each other.
  4. Bending test: A bending test helps in determining the level to which an element could be bent for use in industrial purposes. This helps in selecting the more flexible elements for the required jobs. 

Universal testing machines could be used to perform a test on various materials like steel, iron, bronze, silver, etc. Universal testing machines could be bought at various prices in the market. However, the use of these machines improves the performance of industrial processes. It also helps in reducing the chances of mistakes and accidents in the industries. Universal testing machine price could be afforded by most industrialists and hence it should be used in most operations, if possible. 

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